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虚拟语气英语教案

1.虚拟语气在条件句中的用法现在事实相反的假设
(1)若表示与,则条件从句中用过去式,主句中用过去将来式(would,should,could,might + 动词原形);
(2)若表示某事将来实现的可能性不大,则条件从句中用should + 动词原形也可用“were to+动词原形”或用过去式动词。如:
 I would certainly go if I ___________(have)time.(现在)
 If it should rain,we wouldn't go out.(将来)
(3)若表示与过去事实相反的假设,从句中用过去完成式,主句中用过去将来完成式(should,would,could,might + have + 过去分词)。如:
 If I had set off a little earlier, I __________ __________caught the train.
 She would / might have come if she __________ been so busy.
 If I hadn't ___________(take)your advice,I would have made a bad mistake.
(4)含有虚拟语气的条件状语从句中,如有had,should,were 这三个词的话,在正式或书面语言中可将if省略,再将句子的主语和谓语动词实行全部倒装或部分倒装。如:
___________they time(=If they had time),they would certainly come and help us.
____________it be fine(=If it should be fine),we would go for an outing.
___________I you(=If I were you), I would go.
(4)若主句从句所指的时间不一致,即条件从句表示与过去事实相反,主句表示与现在事实相反;或者条件从句表示与现在事实相反,主句表真实情况,则从句中应采用与具体时间相对应的虚拟形式。如:
If it __________rained last night(过去),It would be very cold today(现在).
If I _____taken your advice(过去),I should have no trouble with the work now(现在).
2.虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法
在动词suggest,order,demand,propose,request,command,insist等后的宾语从句中,用虚拟语气(即Should+动词原形或只用动词原形)来表示愿望、建议、命令、请求等。在动词wish /would rather后的宾语从句中,用过去式表示与现在事实不符,用过去完成式表示与过去事实不符。如:
 I suggest that we(should)set off at once.
The doctor insisted that the patient (should)be X-rayed.
I wish I ____________as strong as you.
 I would rather that you ____________ told him.(没有告诉他)
3.虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法
在It is necessary/important/strange/natural;It is requested/suggested/desired/proposed;it is a pity等结构后的主语从句中要用虚拟语气,即Should+动词原形或只用动词原形。如:
 It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once.
It is requested that Professor Li(___________)give us a speech.
It is desired that we(should)get everything ready by tonight.
4.虚拟语气在表语从句、同位语从句中的用法。
在 suggestion, proposal,idea,plan,order,advice等名词后的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即should+动词原形或只用动词原形。如:
 Our suggestion is that you( should)be the first to go.
 My advice is that we(____________)send for Doctor Li.
 Do you know the order that you(should)keep watch?
5.虚拟语气在其他状语从句中的用法
在as if引导的状语从句中,用过去式表示与现在事实不符,用过去完成式表示与过去事实不符;
在so that,in order that引导的状语从句中,常用should/would/could/might+动词原形来表示虚拟语气。如:
They talked as if they________ __________ friends for years.
 She stayed at home for a few days so that she could take care of her mother.
 He took a taxi to the station so that she should not miss the train.
6.虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法:
在it is time后面的定语从句中常用过去式表示虚拟。
 It’s time I was going.
 It’s time somebody ___________(teach)you to behave yourself.
7. 由wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气
A.用wish表示对现在的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:过去式(be动词用were)。
B.用wish表示对将来的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would, could, might+ 动词原形。
C.wish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为:had+动词过去分词或could, would + have +动词过去分词。
I wish that he__________ so lazy.
I wish I____________ wasted so much time.
I wish she would change her mind.
8. had hoped/ planned/ thought/ wanted/ intended表示一种过去未实现的愿望或令人失望的事。
I had thought he had been dead for at least 20 years.
I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said
she liked to stay in China.
9. would rather.
would (had) rather, would as soon, would sooner和would prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。例如:
I’d rather you __________the letter right away. 我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。
I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿呆得太久。
I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。
10.It’s (high, about) time that 句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。
It’s time that something ________ ____________(do)about the traffic problem downtown.
It is high time that we put an end to this discussion.现在是我们该结束讲座的时候了
11. 虚拟语气在由某些连词或个词引出的表示条件、目的的状语从句中的使用。常见的这些连词和介词有:
1) unless (除非),provided(倘若),supposing(假若),providing(倘若) , on condition that(如果),由这些词、词组引出的从句,动词多用过去时。
 除非你命令他做,要不他是不会做的。
 He wouldn't do it unless you ordered him to.
假若你有机会出国,你会去哪儿呢?
 Providing you had the opportunity to go abroad, where would you go?
12. so that (以便 ),for fear that(以免, 唯恐),in order that (以便),whether(不管),lest(以免),in case (假使),从句中加情态动词,有时should可省略。
他把它藏起来以免她看见。
He hid it lest she (should) see it.
我得准备点啤酒,说不定约翰会来。
I'll get some beer in case John should come.
他轻轻地进屋,以免吵醒他的同房。
He entered the room quietly in order that he should not wake his roommate.
13. if only
如果表示对现在的愿望,句中的谓语动词常用过去式;
如果表示将来的愿望,句中的谓语动词常用would/could+动词原形;
如果表示对过去的愿望,句中的谓语动词常用had+过去分词。
if only I ______ you!
If only you _________ come yesterday!
If only Linda could go with us tomorrow!
If only I had said more about it!
only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。
I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。
If only the alarm clock had rung.   当时闹钟响了,就好了。
If only he comes early.       但愿他早点回来。

虚拟语气精练60题
1. The boy acted ____ he had never lived in Canada before.
A. as though B. even if C. as D. since
2. If you were old enough, I ____ you to go there yesterday.
A. will allow B. should allow C. would have allowed D. had allowed
3. The secretary suggested that they ____ the men in at once.
A. had brought B. should have brought C. brought D. bring
4. If we arrived here ten minutes earlier, we ___ the bus.
A should have catch B. would have caught C. had caught D. would catch
5. Don't touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _____ you.
A. would attack B. should attack C. would have attacked D. will attack
6. Without electricity, human life _____ quite different today.
A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
7. How I wish I ____ to reapair the watch! I only made it worse.
A. had tried B. hadn't tried C. have tried D. didn't try
8. He demanded that the laboratory report ___ immediately after the experiment was done.
A. was written B. be written C. must be written D. would be written
9. If only I _____ how to operate an electronic computer as you do.
A. had known B. would know C. should know D. knew
10. If he ___ to the teacher attentively, he ___ the answer to the problem now.
A.had listened, would have known B. listened, would know
C. listened, would have known D. had listened, would know
11. I would have come earlier, but I ___ that you were waiting for me.
A. didn’t know B. hadn’t know C. would have known D. haven’t known
12. It is really strange that Marry, who is still a college studnet , ___ so early.
A. has been married B. has married C. be married D. would marry
13. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ___ two weeks to prepare for the exam.
A. give B. should give C. be given D. would be given
14. I was busy yesterday, otherwise I ___ your birthday party.
A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended
15. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years.
A. were B. would be C. have been D. had been
16. It is important that you ___ a communication with Mr. Willians immediately.
A. have B. had C. will have D. would have
17. It is high time we ___ up our results.
A. sum B. summed C. will sum D. would sum
18. If the doctor had been available, the child ___.
A. would not die B. would not have died C. could not die D. could not have died
19. I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _______ everything.
A. knew B. knows C. has known D. had known
20. If you had told me in advance, I ___ him at the airport.
A. would meet B. would had meet C. would have met D. would have meet
21. Kunar can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he ___ me how.
A. teaches B. will teach C. has taught D. would teach
22. I would have called you up for help had it been possible ,but I ___ your phone number then.
A. hadn’t had B. didn’t have C. shouldn’t have D. couldn’t have
23. If it ___ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off.
A. had rained B. would had rained C. have seen D. did see
24. He suggested that they ___ use a trick instead of fighting.
A. should B. would C. do D. had
25. “Why didn’t you buy a new car?” “I would have bought one if I ___ enough money. ”
A. had B. have had C. would have D. had had
26. I recommended that the student ___ his composition as soon as possible.
A. finishing writing B. should finish the writing C. finish writing D. finished writing
27. The Bakers arrived last night, if they’d only let us know earlier, ___ at the station.
A. we’d meet them B. we’ll meet them C. we’d have met them D. we’ve met them
28. We might have failed if you ___ us a helping hand.
A. have not given B. would not give C. had not given D. did not give
29. The Law requires that everyone ___ his car checked at least once a year.
A. has B. had C will have D. have
30 The librarian insists that John ___ no more books from the library before he returns all the books he had borrowed.
A. will take B. took C. take D. takes
31. Then came a word from our boss that we all ___ at present at his office right away.
A. be B. to be C. would be D. shall be
32. ---Helen couldn’t got to France after all.
----That’s too bad, I’m sure she would have enjoyed it if ___.
A. she’s gone B. she’ll go C. she’d gone D. she’d go
33 I must go there earlier. John has suggested that I ___ an hour before the discussion begins.
A. go B. shall go C. will go D. would go
34. But for the guidance of our instructor(导师) , we ___ in the experiment.
A. shouldn’t succeed B. could not have succeed
C. will not succeed D. should not have succeeded
35. In the past men generally would rather that their wives______ in the home.
A. worked B. would work C. work D. were working
.36. John did not feel well yesterday; otherwise he _______to see his classmates off.
A. came B. would come C. would have come D. should be coming
37. It’s about time people______ notice of what women did during the war.
A. take B. took C. have taken D. will take
38 Some people are too particular about school records, insisting that every applicant ______all diplomas from elementary school to university.
A. has B. will have C. should have D. must have
39. Without electronic computers, much of today’s advanced technology_______..
A. will not have been achieved B. have not been achieved
C. would not have been achieved D. had not been achieved
40. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, so it seems as if the sun ________round the earth.
A. were circling B. circles C. is circling D. be circling
41. There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, _______a sudden loud noise.
A. being there B. should there be C. there was D. there having been
42 . _______more careful, his ship would not have sunk.
A. If the captain were B. Had the captain been
C. Should the captain be D. If the captain would have been
43.It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ________ in love,at the age of seven,with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown.
A.wouldn’t have fallen B.had not fallen C.should fall D.were to fall
44. She insisted that she ________ ill of him behind him,but he didn’t believe it.
A.hadn’t spoken B.shouldn’t speak C.wouldn’t speak D.not speak
45.She couldn’t have answered the question if she ________a few books on world history.
A.hadn’t read B.hasn’t read C.wouldn’t read D.didn’t read
46. I went to the meeting yesterday because I _______ nothing about the discussion without attending it.
A.didn’t know B.would know C.knew D.would have known
47. Isn’t it about time that you ________ to pick up the visitors from New York?
A.went B.should go C.go D.will go
48.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it looks as if it ________.
A.breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken
49. His silence at the meeting suggested that he ________ to your plan.
A.didn’t agree B.hadn’t agreed C.wouldn’t agree D.not agree
50. .The young man insisted that he ________ nothing wrong and ________ free immediately.
A.did; set B.had done; should be set C.do; be set D.had done; must be set
51. If you ________ to see Mary, what would you tell her?
A are B will be going C had D were
52. If the whole operation ____________ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.
A was not planned B has not been planned C had not been planned D were not planned
53. If I __________ harder at school, I would be sitting in a comfortable office now.
A had worked B worked C were to work D were working
54. I wish I ____________ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.
A could have slept B slept C might have slept D have slept
55. “ You are very selfish. It’s high time you _________ you are not the most important person in the world,” Edgar said to his boss angrily.
A have realized B realised C realize D should realise
56. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you ___________ now.
A wouldn’t be smiling B couldn’t have smiled C won’t smile D didn’t smile
57. __________ for my illness, I would have lent him a helping hand.
A Not being B Had it not been C without being D Not having been
58. Were she to leave right now, she ___________ there on Sunday.
A had got B might have got C would got D has got
59. The children in the backseat might have been seriously injured if the driver ________ that they
wear seatbelts.
A hasn’t been insisting B hadn’t insisted C wouldn’t insist D wasn’t insisting
60. if only I _________ more careful that day!
A could be B would have been C should be D had been

 
 

 


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  发布时间:2009-8-27 17:49:01  阅读人次
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